Studying about crane - Classify


Based on the characteristics and functions of the crane, cranes are classified into several types as below:

Wheel/Crawler Crane

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Self-propelled crane

Mobile crane (or sometimes Self mobile crane) is a group of cranes that move horizontally on the ground by the power source attached to the crane. Self-propelled cranes usually have a tilting arm, changing the reach by tilting the arm or installing an additional arm. Use the weight of the self-propelled vehicle as a counterweight, as well as sometimes combine additional counterweights placed on the machine.

- Truck crane (Loader crane) is a truck with a dump truck attached with a crane arm to load goods onto the trunk and unload the goods from the trunk;
- Self-propelled crane, also known as a self-propelled crane (Truck-mounted crane);
- Crawler crane;
- Telescopic handler crane
- Railroad crane
- Floating crane

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Tower Crane

Tower crane is a type of crane with a boom mounted on a highbuilding or a structure that functions as a tall tower, to serve the lifting and lowering works at high or super-large heights (transportation by means of transport vertical), especially the construction of  multi-storey buildings,  high-rise buildings and  super high-rise buildings.

Mobile tower tower crane
Mobile tower cranes are not suitable for the construction of high-rise buildings and especially skyscrapers (ultra-high-rises), because moving both the tower and the base will make it possible to sacrifice less of the lifting height of the boom. shaft, to ensure the crane work stably. At the same time, because the mobile tower cannot be fixed, to ensure the stability of the counterweight of this type of crane must be placed low, the crane arrangement must consider the counterweight radius to ensure safety when operating. . Mobile tower foot tower is especially suitable for the construction of multi-storey buildings with not too large height but running many units (this type of construction is quite popular in the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries in the world in 20th century). However, it is still suitable for building houses and single-storey buildings of all kinds.

- Tower crane running on rails (low counterweight rotating tower), is a group of tower cranes that move (mobile) horizontally on rails by an external power source of the crane (family КБ (former Soviet Union, Russia), family GTMR ( France, Europe));
- Self-built tower crane (family GMA (Grues à Montage Automatisé), GTMR (Grues à Tour à Montage Rapide))
- Crawler tower crane
- Telescopic crane (Telescopic crane)

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Fixed foot tower crane

The fixed foot tower crane is especially suitable for the construction of high-rise or super-high-rise buildings with concentrated ground (tower houses). The stability of the tower pylons thanks to the pylons anchored to the building gradually according to the height of the work. and to stabilize the boom when lifting the load, above the pylon on the opposite side of the arm is the counterweight hanging arm, creating a holding torque that can beat the load torque when the crane is in operation. Cranes of this type are not very suitable for single-storey buildings or multi-storey buildings running many units. However, when constructing a multi-storey building with many units, it is still possible to use this type of crane as a number of several cranes of the same type in combination. Each unit arranges 1-2 of these fixed tower cranes.

  • Tower crane with fixed tower base:  
    • Vehicle tower crane self-standing, with fixed tower base (rotating tower, low counterweight)
    • Tower crane with fixed tower base partially connected to the tower (high counterweight, horizontal boom, variable reach by car) (GME family (Grues à Montage par Éléments)
    • Sail tower crane (fixed tower, tall counterweight, replace reach with boom angle, Luffing crane)
    • Sail tower crane height constant hook hanger (Level luffing crane)
  • Tower crane self-climbing;

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- Double girder running bridge
- Single girder running bridge
- Winch truck
- Cable crane

Cable crane

Gantry crane

  • Portal crane

Portal crane

Flying crane
Helicopter Crane

Simple fixed crane

  • mini crane
  • Conson girder electric winch frame 

Depending on the needs of use, people choose different types of cranes.

Crawler cranes are often chosen to be used in low-rise construction projects, making foundations, roads and bridges, etc., places with uneven terrain' while wheel cranes mainly serve construction projects. have a flatter surface.

Self-propelled cranes are more maneuverable, both able to lift and run on the road, often used to lift objects that are not too large or heavy and easily move from one place to another.

Tower cranes are often seen in high-rise buildings that can lift materials up to a height of hundreds of meters.

Cranes are often used when constructing overhead works such as cable cars thanks to the shaft and line system

The type of crane commonly used at the port for loading and unloading is called a gantry crane, which is used to bring goods from the ship to and back at the same time as loading and unloading the container truck.

Thus, since ancient times, people have improved many times from longitudinal lines to mobile shafts and to today's cranes to better serve people's lives.

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